The Journal of Bucharest College of Physicians and the Romanian Academy of Medical Sciences

Sonographic Placental Aspects in Fetal Growth Restriction


Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a complication diagnosed in about 10% of pregnancies and is associated with significant perinatal mortality and morbidity. Both the diagnosis and the correct management of cases of intrauterine growth restriction remain a challenge of modern obstetrics. A normal placental development is essential for a proper intrauterine physical and neurological growth of the fetus throughout pregnancy. Various pathophysiological situations may reflect in abnormal placental development linked with severe pregnancy disorders. In this paper we aim to exemplify sonographic aspects in various placental pathology associated with FGR along with the recommended management. Placental insufficiency is the most common risk factor for FGR and it cannot be directly measured and objectified, remaining a diagnostic of exclusion. The risk for perinatal adverse outcomes in placenta accreta spectrum cases is increased trough the pathological implantation especially in depth. In pregnancies complicated with placental insufficiency, secondary macroscopic lesions can be noted, as parabasal and intervillous thrombosis, hematomas, extensive fibrin deposits and infarcts areas. Even if, over time, multiple studies have targeted methods of preventing intrauterine growth restriction through actions on the mother, the effectiveness of no treatment has been demonstrated.