Ovidiu Gabriel Bratu

Ovidiu Gabriel Bratu

Defensive Surgery - a New Under-Recognized Reality among Surgeons

In recent years, the number of medical litigations is increasing and defensive medicine becomes a widespread approach among physicians all over the world. Defensive behavior of physicians is more common in scheduled, elective, compared to emergency medical services. The immediate direct consequences of this defensive behavior are found in the increase of costs (additional investigations) and the increase of waiting time for certain procedures and interventions (repeated postponements). Difficult and uncomfortable to admit that it exists, but defensive behavior is a reality. It raises numerous and complex ethical issues, and the goal of health policies should be to reduce this phenomenon.

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Contraindications to Breastfeeding - Current Issues at the Border Between Myth and Reality

Breast milk is recommended as an optimal and exclusive source of early nutrition for all infants from birth to at least 6 months of age. Despite all the benefits of breastfeeding, there are situations where breastfeeding is contraindicated. There are differences of opinion regarding the contraindications of breastfeeding, the current research bringing more knowledge in this area. It is important to know the differences of opinion for the correct approach of the breastfeeding patient.

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Surgical Alloplastic Approach with Dual Mesh in a Multisacular, Recurrent Incisional Hernia – Case Presentation

Repairing an incisional ventral hernia represents a challenge for the surgeon. The high recurrence rates observed during hernia repair by tissue approximation leads to development of tension-free procedures by using prosthetic materials. Incisional or ventral hernia is a very common multifactorial pathology that requires surgical intervention to prevent complications, such as pain, discomfort, bowel obstruction or strangulation. To perform the wall repair it is of utmost importance to understand the pathogenesis of the hernia, the anatomy and physiology of the abdominal wall, and surgical techniques. Several repair methods are available, including open suture repair, open mesh repair, the component separation technique, and tissue expansion assisted closure. To perform the ventral hernia repair properly, a full understanding and correct selection of mesh and management of probable complications, such as seroma, bowel injury, enteric fistulae, and recurrence, is essential. There are lots of scientific debates about an ideal material for mesh parietal repair. In latest years, the tendency is that the continuous decreasing territory of polyester mesh to be slowly replaced by the increasing territory of polypropylene mesh in open procedures for abdominal incisional hernia repair. The goals of incisional hernia repair are the prevention of visceral eventration, incorporation of the abdominal wall in the repair, provision of dynamic muscular support, and restoration of abdominal wall continuity in a tension-free manner. We present the case of a 55 years old woman who had a history of multiple surgical interventions. We performed an open surgical approach, tension free technique using an intraperitoneal dual-mesh.

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Is There an Increased Complications Rate in After-Hours Colorectal Surgery?

When a surgical team is dealing with an after-hours colorectal surgery, they are actually confronting with a chain of elements and events, some linked to the patient and severity of the surgical case, others related to the medical team ability to cooperate, from nurses to surgeon and anesthetist. There is a series of differences between elective and emergency performed surgeries, two of them and most important elements are the patient (disease type, age, preoperative condition) and the operating team (experience, technical performance after-hours, especially at night).

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The importance of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy

High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy devices are used on a daily-basis in many intensive care units and postoperative wards. Such a device deliver a mixture of air and oxygen, warmed, humidifi ed, with gas flow between 20-60 L/min, and inspired oxygen fraction between 0.21-1. Therefore, it improves oxygenation, decreases dead space, washes out the carbon dioxide (CO2) from patients’ airways, improves thoraco-abdominal synchrony and decreases the work of breathing. Studies have shown effi cacy of HFNC oxygen therapy use for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, for patients with exacerbations of chronic pulmonary diseases, after extubation in order reduce the need for mechanical ventilation, in perioperative period to prevent atelectasis and in palliative care, in order to reduce breathlessness. It isn`t feasible for patients with severe altered neurological status, facial trauma, basal skull fracture, complete airway obstruction or epistaxis. There are no standardized recommendation for the use or contraindication of HFCN oxygen therapy. The weaning is realised according with patients’ tolerance, oxygen saturation, respiratory and heart rates.

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Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: the Surgical Perspective

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), namely Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are relatively rare diseases in our country, known as a low prevalence geographic region. IBD are a multidisciplinary problem, that implies gastroenterologists, as well as surgeons. Surgical management in inflammatory bowel disease is often impaired by a high complication rate and a significant recurrence rate, specifi c mostly for Crohn’s disease. Indications for surgery include failure of medical therapy (including delayed puberty for young patients and drug intolerance), toxic megacolon, bowel perforation, obstruction, enteric fi stula and abdominal or perianal abscess. Advances in medical treatment options for IBD are continuously accumulating. However, a large number of patients still require surgical procedures during lifetime.

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Abdominal Compartment Syndrome - a Surgical Emergency

Over the past six decades, abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) remained a very controversial subject, both in surgical and non-surgical specialties. Doctors failed to understand why critically ill patients died in the ICU with distended abdomens without fi nding any cause or why postoperative patients with wound defects such as dehiscence died after suturing the wound again „very tightly”. After the concept of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was established and methods for measuring it and diagnosing intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) were available for clinicians to use it, it became clearer that ACS was a very serious and life threating pathology and the need for a correct treatment is essential. In this article we will try to make a literature review of the past decade and see when and how to diagnose correctly a patient with ACS and also how the diagnostic and treatments methods changed over the years.

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Hypercholesterolemia, as a Predictor Factor of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

Dyslipidemia constitutes a well-known factor that can lead to acute pancreatitis. Hypertrigliceridemia and hypercholesterolemia are part of dyslipidemia. In a prospecitve study, we analyzed the role of hypercholesterolemia in triggering episodes of acute pancreatitis and the capacity of cholesterol blood level to predict the severity and the evolution of acute pancreatitis. In our prospective study, a preexistent cholesterol blood level above 240 mg/dl proved to be a trigger for pancreatitis and an increasing cholesterol level in evolution predicts a pancreatitis with organ failure (moderately-severe or severe).

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The Labyrinth Behind an Acute Respiratory Failure

Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure may have different causes. Case presentation: We present the case of a 42-year-old woman, with history of recent thyroidectomy and a late history of sleeve gastrectomy, who presented for acute dyspnoea. The chest X-ray revealed hydropneumothorax, and, therefore, an intercostals chest tube drainage was inserted. The evolution was unfavourable, with further respiratory status deterioration. A computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen was performed, that revealed a dilated thoracic oesophagus and stenosis of the esophagogastric junction, with lack of substance in the oesophageal wall and extravasation of oesophageal content in the posterior mediastinum, due to an oesophageal pleural fi stula. An oesophageal stent was inserted under endoscopic guidance and the patient underwent minim-invasive surgical interventions for evacuation of the mediastinal and pleural collections, with a favourable evolution. Conclusions: Acute respiratory failure can be the face of multiple conditions, some of these can be life threatening and in need for rapid detection and treatment.

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Unusual Combination of Posterior Femoral Head Dislocation and Ipsilateral Intertrochanteric Open Fracture: Case Report

The combination of posterior femoral head dislocation with ipsilateral intertrochanteric fracture is an extremely rare occurrence, therefore, few reports exist. The posterior femoral head dislocation is an injury most common encountered in road traffic accident (dash-board) and may associate various types of acetabular, femoral head or femoral neck fractures[1-3] but almost never an intertrochanteric fracture. [...]

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Endometriosis-Associated Infertility

Endometriosis is definined as the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterine cavity and it presumably affects 10-15% of reproductive aged women. The prevalence of endometriosis appears to be higher in women in Philippines, Indian, Japanese and Korean origin[1]. Clinical manifestations depend upon the site where the ectopic endometrial tissue is located and include dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain, infertility, but the possibility of being asymptomatic exists. [...]

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Methods of Transvaginal Ultrasound Examination in Endometriosis

"Endometriosis is a chronic, hormone-dependent condition with a nonspecific clinical picture, including chronic pelvic pain, a disturbing symptom that causes the patient to seek specialist medical advice"[1]. It is a chronic, often progressive, condition that affects women of reproductive age in a proportion of 5-10%. Despite such high prevalence, endometriosis remains an enigmatic disease with a poorly understood pathophysiology. [...]

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Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: a Review

Alcoholism is a common condition and frequently clinicians are forced to confront its complications in general hospital settings. Within each country, there is an excellent correlation between the level of alcohol consumption and the prevalence of alcohol-related harm. In fact, the consumption in Europe is 10.9 liters of pure alcohol per person per year[1]. There are an estimated 3 million alcohol-dependent people in Romania alone, with episodes of withdrawal severe enough to require pharmacologic treatment[1]. [...]

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Urological Malpractice

Nowadays, doctors face a challenging medico-legal environment. This is also the case of urologists with many legal claims against them. The fact that urology is a surgical specialty is not encouraging, surgical specialties being situated on top of the chain. One of the most important problems is the lack of information from the specialized editorials. This kind of data is hard to find especially since it is often regarded as confidential information. [...]

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Radionuclide Imaging. An Update on the Use of Dynamic Renal Scintigraphy

Renal scintigraphy is a nuclear medicine technique that uses medical radioactive isotopes for the evaluation of the renal function. Functional data complete clinical and anatomical data obtained through other imaging techniques and can assist the clinician in the diagnostic and management of various renal disorders. The most widely used radioactive isotope for me-dical imaging is Technetium-99m. In renal scintigraphy 99m-Tc is coupled to a substance that is eliminated predominantely by glomerular filtration (DTPA) or tubular excretion (MAG3) or which is attached to tubular proteins (DMSA). DTPA and MAG3 allow a dynamic study which result in the generation of a nephrographic curve for each kidney and the calculation of clearance parameters - ie glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or the effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), respectively. [...]

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The Impact of Testicular Cancer on Fertility - Literature Review

Testicular cancer has an increased incidence among young males (15-35 years old)[1]. The incidence in testicular cancer for this category of patients is quite high, 7.52 new cases for 100000 people. The predominant histopathological subtypes among fertile-aged young males are embryonal carci-noma and teratocarcinoma[1]. [...]

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Tuberculosis of Testis: a Rare Disease

Tuberculosis represents one of the most important pro-blems in public health. It is an intense studied infectio-us disease, in the past and also in present[2,3].
The incidence of tuberculosis is decreasing in most indistrualized countries due to the improvement of prevention and therapeutic means (BCG vaccination, antituberculostatic therapy)[3]. [...]

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Penile Neoplasia Forensic Approach

As in cervix carcinoma the role of HPV has been proved, infact there is a rare type of PC which is directly linked to HPV[3]. As such, the prevalence of penile neoplasia is related to that of HPV in general population. Strains 16 and 18 are the most common findings in penile carcinoma[4]. [...]

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Iatrogenic Ureteral Injury Following Radical Hysterectomy - Case Presentation

Iatrogenic ureteral injuries represent an important complication of abdomino-pelvic surgery with serio-us consequences in the absence of a prompt diagnostic and adequate treatment. According to literature it has been estimated that over 75% of all ureteral injuries are iatrogenic and that the incidence of ureteral lesions during an abdomino-pelvic surgery ranges from 0.5% to 10%[1-5]. Studies concerning this pathology have shown that obstetric and gynecological surgery accounts for approximately 50-60% or even more, followed by colorectal surgery 10-25%, vascular surgery (aortoiliac and aorto-femural bypass) and urological surgery 15-30% (classic, laparoscopic and endoscopic approach)[5-11]. [...]

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HPV and Bladder Cancer - Is There a Connection?

HPV represents without any doubt one of the biggest health problems nowadys. Since the early days of its discovery by zur Hausen[1] the importance of this pathogen has risen. It is role in cervix neoplasia has been already demonstrated and steps have been made to counter this threat (vaccine). There are proofs that link this virus to other ano-genital neoplasia (here we include the penis, vulva, ano-rectal region and later the laryngeal neoplasia). [...]

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An Unfortunately Surprise of a Renal Cystic Mass - Case Presentation

Cystic renal masses represents a pathology that may rise diagnosis and management difficulties. The differential diagnosis of large renal cystic masses should be made with normal renal cysts, hydronephrosis, renal abscess, renal hematoma, morpho-functional demaged kidney or with a renal tumor with necrosis and abscess. [...]

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A Long Term Clinical Comparison in Cases of High Volume Benign Prostatic Obstruction - Bipolar Plasma Enucleation Versus...

Despite the constant technological advances achieved during the past decades, large size benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) pathology continues to raise questions concerning the most appropriate therapeutic approach. Interestingly enough, the classical open prostatectomy still represents the standard option for this type of cases despite the substantial perioperative morbidity [1]. [...]

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Cytostatic Therapy on Tumor Bearing Mice: Biochemical and Hematological Aspects

to emphasize this statement mice are used due to human DNA similarity (According to The Jackson Laboratory over 95% of the mouse genome is similar to our own, making mouse genetic research particularly applicable to human disease), simplicity in procurement, handling and short lifespan [1-3]. The purpose of this information is to help investigators who pursue an economical and efficient research that still allows the achievement of the study goals [4-7] [...]

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Advanced Genital Prolapse - Mesh Surgical Treatment

Genital prolapse is a frequent pathology in women associated with different urological and gynecological complications affecting women `s normal life [1]. It is defined as pelvic organ slipped from their anatomical position through vagina. The pelvic structures which might slip are uterus, bladder, rectum, small intestine or vaginal vault. Each one of these benefits of a specific surgical procedure [1].

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A History of an Old and Still New Disease: Urinary Lithiasis

We believe that with the apparition of the first settlements and the act of eating also appeared the first potentially urinary lithiasis patients. One of the "leading minds"[1] of the twentieth century, Margaret Mead (1901-1978) (fig. 1), renowned anthro-pologist used to say "it is easier to change a nation religion rather its eating habits".

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Epstein Barr Virus and Cytomegalovirus in Prostate - A Controversial Subject

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the Herpes Virus family and is also known as Human Herpes Virus 4. The virus was first isolated in 1964 by the British virologists Michael Anthony Epstein and Yvonne Barr, on a cell line derived from a Burkitt lymphoma. EBV infection is especially common in young individuals with low hygiene standards and also low social and economic status. Thereby it is considered that until the third decade of life, around 80 - 100% individuals have become carriers of infection [1,2]. Although EBV is considered to be a lymphotropic B virus, it can also infect T and NK lymphocytes or some epithelial cells, as it has beenfound in T cell lymphomas, stomach, nose, andthroat carcinomas [2]. The most common host cellfor EBV is B lymphocyte, although in some cases the virus can also be detected in epithelial cells. The role of epithelial cells is likely to permit the replication and amplification of EBV persistence than that of the latent infection [3].

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Talking About Malpractice: A Possible Future Case

The medical profession is certainly there for thousands of years, the first documented therapeutic methods being used since prehistoric times. Although to date there has been significant advance in this area, current treatments are not infallible, which means that in medical practice there are certain errors. Sometimes patients may interpret these errors as malpractice, accusing the physician with certain charges related to his work, or rather the lack of his work. In terms of ethical norms, the Medical College of Physicians in Romania’s Code of Ethics has been prepared in accordance with the Geneva Declaration issued in 1948 and has a complementary legislative role stated above, the purpose of regulating the fundamental principles of professional conduct for doctors. All these laws are meant to guide medical staff attitudes in clinical practice and are relevant in a medical malpractice case.

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HPV Implications in Benign Prostatic Impairments - A Literature Review

Benign prostatic impairments are a heterogeneous group of diseases that can coexist or be separate entities. Some of these conditions (prostatitis) are included in the pelvic pain syndrome, while the other is represented by the prostatic adenoma and its implications. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is histologically associated, in most cases, with the presence of inflammatory infiltrate at this level. Histopathological examination of the resected pieces and fragments of prostatic biopsy in many cases reveals stromal inflammatory infiltrate adjacent to the prostatic acini. (1, 2) In addition to the many factors involved in the prostate benign microbial pathology (E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter aerogenes and the great family of enterococci), there are numerous data in specialized literature, certifying the presence of viral genomes in both benign and malignant pathology of the prostate. (3, 4) Among them the following stand out: Papilloma virus (HPV), Polyoma viruses, cytomegaloviruses (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Herpes Virus 8 (HHV 8) and xenotropic murine leukemia virus recently (XMRV). (5)

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