Gheorghita Aron

Gheorghita Aron

Diagnostic Challenges in Atypical Pulmonary Carcinoid

The spectrum of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the lung is wide and heterogeneous, ranging from well-differentiated bronchial neuroendocrine tumors to highly malignant and poorly differentiated small cell lung cancer and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. NETs of the lung share both morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics with neuroendocrine tumors. [...]

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Worsening Renal Function in Elderly Patients with Heart Failure and Chronic Kidney Disease: An Update

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as either kidney damage or eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for three or more months [1]. Elderly patients have often an impaired basal renal function due to intrinsic renal disease or to a physiological decrease in the number of functional nephrons [2]. Half of adults over the age of 70 years have eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 [3]. CKD occurs in about 4.5% of the general population and 50% in patients with chronic or acute heart failure (HF) [4]. Commonly, CKD can be associated with chronic heart failure in elderly patients [2] [...]

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The Evolution of Electrocardiographic Changes after Revascularization Therapy in Patients with ST Segment Elevation...

Despite the advanced technologies, the 12 leads electrocardiogram (ECG) remains an important investigation modality for providing a fast diagnostic of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). This method offers data concerning the presence, extension and severity characterizing the ischemic process (1). The ECG interpretation is still essential during the initial evaluation of patients admitted for ischemia suggestive symptoms (2).
Moreover, being a cheap, non-invasive and accessible technique, ECG continues to represent the gold-standard alternative for the differential diagnostic, for determining the appropriate treatment approach, for selecting patients susceptible of benefiting from reperfusion as well as regarding risk stratification (1).

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HYPONATREMIA IN PREDIALYSIS HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS: AN UPDATE ON CLINICAL DATA AND MANAGEMENT

Hyponatremia, with an incidence of 15 - 22%, is considered when serum sodium levels are < 135 mEq/L (in institutionalized geriatric patients, in 1 - 4% to 7 - 53% cases there have been reported values below 130 mEq/L) [1-3]. Additionally, according to expert panel recommendations the frequency of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients depends on the detected level of hyponatremia [2]. This special condition is highly important to be detected on time because it represents a recognized risk factor of morbidity and mortality, even in asymptomatic patients [1]. Furthermore, it was noticed that a swift correction can induce severe neurological disorders and even death [1]. Therefore, for an adequate treatment management (prophylaxis and therapy) is vital for understanding hyponatremia main causes and the incriminated pathophysiological mechanisms [1].

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Vascular Calcifications, Major Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Events in Chronic Kidney Disease: An Update on the Pathophy...

Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia are frequently encountered in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (1). They are the major risk factors for the development and progression of the endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis and contribute to the progression of renal failure (1). Microalbuminuria increases to two- to four-fold the cardiovascular risk (1). It is also a quantitative association between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and cardiovascular risk (1). The risk increase to two to four-fold in stage 3 of CKD (GFR 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m²), four- to 10-fold in stage 4 (GFR 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m²) and 10- to 50-fold in stage 5 renal failure (GFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m² OR dialysis) in comparison with persons free of CKD (1). Atherosclerosis with intimal involvement and Moenckeberg’s media sclerosis are the main cardiovascular determinations in CKD. Coronary artery calcifications attain the highest levels in young adults patients with renal failure and dialysis, as has been shown in angiographic studies (2). These patients have many coronary risk factors leading to intimal calcifications and these are coexisting with medial calcification founded only in CKD (2). The degree of coronary artery calcifications seems to be related to the estimated GFR in a multivariate analysis (2). KDIGO guidelines recommend that patients with CKD stages 3-5D with known vascular/valvular calcification be considered at highest cardiovascular risk (class 2A recommendations) (3).

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