Bogdan Socea

Bogdan Socea

Functional Amenorrhea and Pituitary Microadenoma

Introduction: Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a diagnostic challenge, especially in association with structural pituitary changes. We present the case of a patient with functional amenorrhea and pituitary microadenoma, evaluated in multiple medical centres. Case report: A 27-year-old female was referred to our clinic for secondary amenorrhea installed 18 months prior, insomnia, polydipsia (around 4-6 l water intake/day) and polyuria. Clinical examination revealed an underweight patient, with BMI (Body Mass Index) of 17.5 kg/m2, normal secondary sex characteristics, pallor of the skin and mucosa. The hormonal profi le revealed normal FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) levels, low LH - Luteinizing Hormone (of 0.15 U/L, normal: 1.20-12.8 U/L), estradiol (of 11.2 pg/mL, normal: 49-291 pg/mL) and progesterone (of 1.13 ng/mL, normal: 5.16-18.56 ng/mL). No pathological changes were recorded at somatotropic, lactotropic, thyrotropic and corticotropic levels. The Diphereline stimulation test revealed functional integrity of the pituitary gland and ovaries. The progesterone with drawal test was negative. There were no pathological findings on biochemical workup and the water deprivation test excluded diabetes insipidus. Morphological exploration of the hypothalamic-pituitary region by contrast-enhanced MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scan revealed a left pituitary microadenoma measuring 5 mm in diameter. Adequate diet and oral contraceptive treatment were recommended. Conclusion: Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is the most common cause of neuroendocrine amenorrhea. Identifying the context and causative factors is essential for making an appropriate therapeutic decision.

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Pasireotide after Surgery for Persistent Cushing’s Disease

Introduction: Cushing’s disease (CD) is characterized by multiple complications, particularly due to the condition itself, but also as a result of curative treatment. Nowadays, transsphenoidal surgery is considered the first-line therapy. Persistent hypercortisolism requires the initiation of medical therapy in order to limit the consequences of the disease. A common complication of pasireotide treatment is type 2 diabetes mellitus. We present a case of persistent Cushing’s disease after transsphenoidal adenomectomy and pasireotide therapy, evaluated in several medical centers. Case presentation: A 27-year-old female was referred to our clinic for weight gain, hypertension, transient headache and recurrent depression. Clinical examination revealed plethoric moon face, purple striae, hirsutism with a Ferriman-Gallwey score of 14, acanthosis nigricans. The hormonal profi le showed high ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) levels (of 110.6 pg/mL, normal: 7.2-63.3 pg/mL), high urinary free cortisol (UFC) (of 846.5 μg/24h, normal: 50-190 μg/24h) and serum cortisol, accompanied by non-suppression of cortisol after the 1 mg DXM (Dexamethasone) suppression test (of 26.6 μg/dL, normal: 18 μg/dL) and adequate suppression after the overnight 8 mg DXM test. Pituitary MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) revealed a microadenoma measuring 4.3/4.4/6.2 mm. Transsphenoidal adenomectomy was recommended. After surgery, the patient developed multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, without significant remission of hypercortisolism. Pasireotide therapy was initiated, followed by inadequate control of hypercortisolism and the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, requiring oral antidiabetic agents and insulin. Conclusion: In persistent Cushing’s disease, the challenge lies in identifying the optimal therapeutic methods in order to achieve a cure while, at the same time, limiting their side effects. Careful long-term follow-up by a multidisciplinary team is required.

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Defensive Surgery - a New Under-Recognized Reality among Surgeons

In recent years, the number of medical litigations is increasing and defensive medicine becomes a widespread approach among physicians all over the world. Defensive behavior of physicians is more common in scheduled, elective, compared to emergency medical services. The immediate direct consequences of this defensive behavior are found in the increase of costs (additional investigations) and the increase of waiting time for certain procedures and interventions (repeated postponements). Difficult and uncomfortable to admit that it exists, but defensive behavior is a reality. It raises numerous and complex ethical issues, and the goal of health policies should be to reduce this phenomenon.

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Features of Acute Pancreatitis Patients Admitted to a General Surgery Clinic

Acute pancreatitis is an important current problem with a growing frequency and a potentially severe or even fatal evolution in some cases. In recent years, an increase in the incidence of acute pancreatitis has been observed in the population, which emphasizes the importance of establishing optimal therapeutic behavior. We performed a descriptive, retrospective clinical study, from January 2015 to November 2018, single-center, on a number of 57 patients with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. The presentation characteristics of patients with acute pancreatitis are largely consistent with the literature, with patient sex being the sure parameter that highlights a significant difference, with a greater number of women being diagnosed with acute pancreatitis.

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Surgical Alloplastic Approach with Dual Mesh in a Multisacular, Recurrent Incisional Hernia – Case Presentation

Repairing an incisional ventral hernia represents a challenge for the surgeon. The high recurrence rates observed during hernia repair by tissue approximation leads to development of tension-free procedures by using prosthetic materials. Incisional or ventral hernia is a very common multifactorial pathology that requires surgical intervention to prevent complications, such as pain, discomfort, bowel obstruction or strangulation. To perform the wall repair it is of utmost importance to understand the pathogenesis of the hernia, the anatomy and physiology of the abdominal wall, and surgical techniques. Several repair methods are available, including open suture repair, open mesh repair, the component separation technique, and tissue expansion assisted closure. To perform the ventral hernia repair properly, a full understanding and correct selection of mesh and management of probable complications, such as seroma, bowel injury, enteric fistulae, and recurrence, is essential. There are lots of scientific debates about an ideal material for mesh parietal repair. In latest years, the tendency is that the continuous decreasing territory of polyester mesh to be slowly replaced by the increasing territory of polypropylene mesh in open procedures for abdominal incisional hernia repair. The goals of incisional hernia repair are the prevention of visceral eventration, incorporation of the abdominal wall in the repair, provision of dynamic muscular support, and restoration of abdominal wall continuity in a tension-free manner. We present the case of a 55 years old woman who had a history of multiple surgical interventions. We performed an open surgical approach, tension free technique using an intraperitoneal dual-mesh.

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Is There an Increased Complications Rate in After-Hours Colorectal Surgery?

When a surgical team is dealing with an after-hours colorectal surgery, they are actually confronting with a chain of elements and events, some linked to the patient and severity of the surgical case, others related to the medical team ability to cooperate, from nurses to surgeon and anesthetist. There is a series of differences between elective and emergency performed surgeries, two of them and most important elements are the patient (disease type, age, preoperative condition) and the operating team (experience, technical performance after-hours, especially at night).

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Life-threatening Consequence of a Psychiatric Behavior

Introduction: The prevalence of hypokalemia in psychiatric population is very high with eating disorders and laxative abuse being the main incriminated factors. Case presentation: We report a case of a 34-year-old woman with history of sleeve gastrectomy and breast implant, who presented for fatigue, severe myalgia, generalized hypotonia and palpitations. Laboratory exams revealed severe hypokalemia and rhabdomyolysis. The electrocardiography showed prolonged QT interval and ST segment depression with second-degree atrioventricular block. She received intravenous potassium supplementation with consecutive hydration. When potassium level was within safety limits, the patients received loop diuretics in order to decrease rhabdomyolysis and avoid kidney injury. The underlying cause was a pathological behavior, with frequent self-provoked episodes of nausea and vomiting after eating and chronic consumption of laxatives. She started psychotherapy. Conclusion: Psychiatric behaviour can lead to life-threatening conditions, therefore it should be discovered and managed promptly.

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The importance of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy

High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy devices are used on a daily-basis in many intensive care units and postoperative wards. Such a device deliver a mixture of air and oxygen, warmed, humidifi ed, with gas flow between 20-60 L/min, and inspired oxygen fraction between 0.21-1. Therefore, it improves oxygenation, decreases dead space, washes out the carbon dioxide (CO2) from patients’ airways, improves thoraco-abdominal synchrony and decreases the work of breathing. Studies have shown effi cacy of HFNC oxygen therapy use for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, for patients with exacerbations of chronic pulmonary diseases, after extubation in order reduce the need for mechanical ventilation, in perioperative period to prevent atelectasis and in palliative care, in order to reduce breathlessness. It isn`t feasible for patients with severe altered neurological status, facial trauma, basal skull fracture, complete airway obstruction or epistaxis. There are no standardized recommendation for the use or contraindication of HFCN oxygen therapy. The weaning is realised according with patients’ tolerance, oxygen saturation, respiratory and heart rates.

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Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: the Surgical Perspective

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), namely Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are relatively rare diseases in our country, known as a low prevalence geographic region. IBD are a multidisciplinary problem, that implies gastroenterologists, as well as surgeons. Surgical management in inflammatory bowel disease is often impaired by a high complication rate and a significant recurrence rate, specifi c mostly for Crohn’s disease. Indications for surgery include failure of medical therapy (including delayed puberty for young patients and drug intolerance), toxic megacolon, bowel perforation, obstruction, enteric fi stula and abdominal or perianal abscess. Advances in medical treatment options for IBD are continuously accumulating. However, a large number of patients still require surgical procedures during lifetime.

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Abdominal Compartment Syndrome - a Surgical Emergency

Over the past six decades, abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) remained a very controversial subject, both in surgical and non-surgical specialties. Doctors failed to understand why critically ill patients died in the ICU with distended abdomens without fi nding any cause or why postoperative patients with wound defects such as dehiscence died after suturing the wound again „very tightly”. After the concept of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was established and methods for measuring it and diagnosing intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) were available for clinicians to use it, it became clearer that ACS was a very serious and life threating pathology and the need for a correct treatment is essential. In this article we will try to make a literature review of the past decade and see when and how to diagnose correctly a patient with ACS and also how the diagnostic and treatments methods changed over the years.

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Hypercholesterolemia, as a Predictor Factor of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

Dyslipidemia constitutes a well-known factor that can lead to acute pancreatitis. Hypertrigliceridemia and hypercholesterolemia are part of dyslipidemia. In a prospecitve study, we analyzed the role of hypercholesterolemia in triggering episodes of acute pancreatitis and the capacity of cholesterol blood level to predict the severity and the evolution of acute pancreatitis. In our prospective study, a preexistent cholesterol blood level above 240 mg/dl proved to be a trigger for pancreatitis and an increasing cholesterol level in evolution predicts a pancreatitis with organ failure (moderately-severe or severe).

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The Labyrinth Behind an Acute Respiratory Failure

Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure may have different causes. Case presentation: We present the case of a 42-year-old woman, with history of recent thyroidectomy and a late history of sleeve gastrectomy, who presented for acute dyspnoea. The chest X-ray revealed hydropneumothorax, and, therefore, an intercostals chest tube drainage was inserted. The evolution was unfavourable, with further respiratory status deterioration. A computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen was performed, that revealed a dilated thoracic oesophagus and stenosis of the esophagogastric junction, with lack of substance in the oesophageal wall and extravasation of oesophageal content in the posterior mediastinum, due to an oesophageal pleural fi stula. An oesophageal stent was inserted under endoscopic guidance and the patient underwent minim-invasive surgical interventions for evacuation of the mediastinal and pleural collections, with a favourable evolution. Conclusions: Acute respiratory failure can be the face of multiple conditions, some of these can be life threatening and in need for rapid detection and treatment.

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Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: a Review

Alcoholism is a common condition and frequently clinicians are forced to confront its complications in general hospital settings. Within each country, there is an excellent correlation between the level of alcohol consumption and the prevalence of alcohol-related harm. In fact, the consumption in Europe is 10.9 liters of pure alcohol per person per year[1]. There are an estimated 3 million alcohol-dependent people in Romania alone, with episodes of withdrawal severe enough to require pharmacologic treatment[1]. [...]

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Urological Malpractice

Nowadays, doctors face a challenging medico-legal environment. This is also the case of urologists with many legal claims against them. The fact that urology is a surgical specialty is not encouraging, surgical specialties being situated on top of the chain. One of the most important problems is the lack of information from the specialized editorials. This kind of data is hard to find especially since it is often regarded as confidential information. [...]

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