Alexandra Bolocan

Alexandra Bolocan

Functional Amenorrhea and Pituitary Microadenoma

Introduction: Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a diagnostic challenge, especially in association with structural pituitary changes. We present the case of a patient with functional amenorrhea and pituitary microadenoma, evaluated in multiple medical centres. Case report: A 27-year-old female was referred to our clinic for secondary amenorrhea installed 18 months prior, insomnia, polydipsia (around 4-6 l water intake/day) and polyuria. Clinical examination revealed an underweight patient, with BMI (Body Mass Index) of 17.5 kg/m2, normal secondary sex characteristics, pallor of the skin and mucosa. The hormonal profi le revealed normal FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) levels, low LH - Luteinizing Hormone (of 0.15 U/L, normal: 1.20-12.8 U/L), estradiol (of 11.2 pg/mL, normal: 49-291 pg/mL) and progesterone (of 1.13 ng/mL, normal: 5.16-18.56 ng/mL). No pathological changes were recorded at somatotropic, lactotropic, thyrotropic and corticotropic levels. The Diphereline stimulation test revealed functional integrity of the pituitary gland and ovaries. The progesterone with drawal test was negative. There were no pathological findings on biochemical workup and the water deprivation test excluded diabetes insipidus. Morphological exploration of the hypothalamic-pituitary region by contrast-enhanced MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scan revealed a left pituitary microadenoma measuring 5 mm in diameter. Adequate diet and oral contraceptive treatment were recommended. Conclusion: Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is the most common cause of neuroendocrine amenorrhea. Identifying the context and causative factors is essential for making an appropriate therapeutic decision.

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Pasireotide after Surgery for Persistent Cushing’s Disease

Introduction: Cushing’s disease (CD) is characterized by multiple complications, particularly due to the condition itself, but also as a result of curative treatment. Nowadays, transsphenoidal surgery is considered the first-line therapy. Persistent hypercortisolism requires the initiation of medical therapy in order to limit the consequences of the disease. A common complication of pasireotide treatment is type 2 diabetes mellitus. We present a case of persistent Cushing’s disease after transsphenoidal adenomectomy and pasireotide therapy, evaluated in several medical centers. Case presentation: A 27-year-old female was referred to our clinic for weight gain, hypertension, transient headache and recurrent depression. Clinical examination revealed plethoric moon face, purple striae, hirsutism with a Ferriman-Gallwey score of 14, acanthosis nigricans. The hormonal profi le showed high ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) levels (of 110.6 pg/mL, normal: 7.2-63.3 pg/mL), high urinary free cortisol (UFC) (of 846.5 μg/24h, normal: 50-190 μg/24h) and serum cortisol, accompanied by non-suppression of cortisol after the 1 mg DXM (Dexamethasone) suppression test (of 26.6 μg/dL, normal: 18 μg/dL) and adequate suppression after the overnight 8 mg DXM test. Pituitary MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) revealed a microadenoma measuring 4.3/4.4/6.2 mm. Transsphenoidal adenomectomy was recommended. After surgery, the patient developed multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, without significant remission of hypercortisolism. Pasireotide therapy was initiated, followed by inadequate control of hypercortisolism and the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, requiring oral antidiabetic agents and insulin. Conclusion: In persistent Cushing’s disease, the challenge lies in identifying the optimal therapeutic methods in order to achieve a cure while, at the same time, limiting their side effects. Careful long-term follow-up by a multidisciplinary team is required.

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Features of Acute Pancreatitis Patients Admitted to a General Surgery Clinic

Acute pancreatitis is an important current problem with a growing frequency and a potentially severe or even fatal evolution in some cases. In recent years, an increase in the incidence of acute pancreatitis has been observed in the population, which emphasizes the importance of establishing optimal therapeutic behavior. We performed a descriptive, retrospective clinical study, from January 2015 to November 2018, single-center, on a number of 57 patients with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. The presentation characteristics of patients with acute pancreatitis are largely consistent with the literature, with patient sex being the sure parameter that highlights a significant difference, with a greater number of women being diagnosed with acute pancreatitis.

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Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: the Surgical Perspective

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), namely Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are relatively rare diseases in our country, known as a low prevalence geographic region. IBD are a multidisciplinary problem, that implies gastroenterologists, as well as surgeons. Surgical management in inflammatory bowel disease is often impaired by a high complication rate and a significant recurrence rate, specifi c mostly for Crohn’s disease. Indications for surgery include failure of medical therapy (including delayed puberty for young patients and drug intolerance), toxic megacolon, bowel perforation, obstruction, enteric fi stula and abdominal or perianal abscess. Advances in medical treatment options for IBD are continuously accumulating. However, a large number of patients still require surgical procedures during lifetime.

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Hypercholesterolemia, as a Predictor Factor of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

Dyslipidemia constitutes a well-known factor that can lead to acute pancreatitis. Hypertrigliceridemia and hypercholesterolemia are part of dyslipidemia. In a prospecitve study, we analyzed the role of hypercholesterolemia in triggering episodes of acute pancreatitis and the capacity of cholesterol blood level to predict the severity and the evolution of acute pancreatitis. In our prospective study, a preexistent cholesterol blood level above 240 mg/dl proved to be a trigger for pancreatitis and an increasing cholesterol level in evolution predicts a pancreatitis with organ failure (moderately-severe or severe).

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