Due to its complex structure, the abdominal wall is vital as it serves to protect the internal organs, maintain the upright position and regulate the intraabdominal pressure. Complex abdominal defects are a major health problem, with challenging treatment, many complications and risks. It is not a completely elucidated pathology as there is no consensus in literature regarding the definition and classification. Although there are various reconstruction techniques, there is no sistematic protocol in literature that allows the surgeon to choose the best treatment suitable for each patient. Therefore, the first step to manage these patients is a carefull assesment of the patient background and only after that, a complete analysis of the actual wound should be made. Second step is appropriate abdominal wall closure. After the analysis of current data from international literature, we identified a decision-making algorithm to offer guidance in surgical management in order to obtain an optimal functional outcome. The foundation of the algorithm is the idea of gradually improving the local tissue status, in order to deal with a clean wound as much as possible. This way, the success rate of the surgical reconstruction improves.